Held at the Annual Meeting of the American Phytopathology Society in San Diego California on 28 July 2007


The Legume PIPE is in its first year of operation. The current focus of work is to identify appropriate insects and pathogens to include in the system, establish field and laboratory protocols for collecting data on these pests, evaluate the appropriateness of the methodologies that are deployed this year, and develop a restricted access legume PIPE website component to share and display observations among participants. The objectives of the legume PIPE and future directions for the PIPE were presented and discussed. Participants reviewed and accepted the current field sampling and diagnostic laboratory protocols. The "look" of the updated restricted access website was presented and participants agreed that ZedX should launch the legume component of the restricted PIPE website as soon as possible so that the specialists could begin using and evaluating its usefulness this growing season. The types of information to include on the public website to be developed for next year was discussed. It was agreed that much of the information that is being collected is very sensitive and that the discussions on what to release to the public need to continue over the next few months.

Workshop Agenda

Introduction: PIPE concept and purpose of workshop (Scott Isard), Legume PIPE; Overview (Marie Langham); Future directions for the PIPE and Discussion (Kitty Cardwell).
Protocols: Field sampling protocol (Howard Schwartz); Virus lab diagnostic protocol (Sue Tolin); General discussion of specialist's concerns (Marty Draper).
Platform tools: Restricted access IPM PIPE website (Julie Golod); Public access IPM PIPE website (Scott Isard).
Wrap-up: (Scott Isard).


Twenty-six researchers and PIPE administrators attended the PIPE workshop. The individuals who participated in the discussions included: Annalisa Ariatti (Pennsylvania), John Ayers (Pennsylvania), Mohammad Babadoost (Illinois), Kitty Cardwell (USDA CSREES), Tom Creswell (North Carolina), Marty Draper (USDA CSREES), Loren Giesler (Nebraska), Natalie Goldberg (New Mexico), Julie Golod (Pennsylvania), Carrie Harmon (SPDN-FL), Bob Harveson (Nebraska), Amanda Hodges (SPDN-FL), Scott Isard (Pennsylvania), Barry Jacobsen (Montana), Marie Langham (South Dakota), Eileen Luke (CERIS), Sam Markell (North Dakota), Jim Marois (Florida), Krishna Mohan (Idaho), Brad Ruden (South Dakota), Marietta Ryba-White (Kansas-GPDN), Howard Schwartz (Colorado), Jim Stack (GPDN-Kansas), Carla Thomas (California), Sue Tolin (Virginia), and Bill Wintermantel (USDA),


Scott Isard welcomed participants and thanked them for coming early to the APS meeting to participate in the PIPE workshop. He reviewed the agenda and stressed that the primary goal of the meeting was to discuss the field and laboratory protocols for collecting data on pests of legumes and the format of both the restricted access and public websites. He thanked Sue Tolin for making the arrangements. Participants introduced themselves indicating their names and affiliations.

Legume PIPE Overview

Marie Langham discussed how and why the legume expansion came about and what the Legume PIPE is meant to accomplish. She indicated that the PIPE system is expanding to include dry or fresh beans, peas, and other marketable legumes and currently 27 states have legume sentinel plots for a total of 158 plots. An important goal of the Legume PIPE is to identify viruses affecting the designated legumes and soybeans. Virus evaluations will be conducted twice in all legume plots and twice in two SBR sentinel plots from each state with SBR plots (58 sentinel plots in all). Other important objectives of the 2007 program are to identify important fungal and bacterial pathogens of legume, develop pest grids and summaries for individual legume crops, extend monitoring for soybean rust into the western US through the use of legume sentinel plots, and begin identifying important insect vectors and other pests of legume. She concluded by reiterating that the Legume PIPE is a system to identify and monitor the pathogens and pests causing yield losses in legumes to develop and promote the good practices for management of these pathogens and pests.

Field Sampling Protocols

Howard Schwartz presented the four groups of legume pests that will be sampled. Group 1 includes pathogens that cause small lesions or spots such as soybean rust or common rust that will be sampled biweekly (4 to 6 times during the season). Group 2 are pathogens that cause small to large lesions or spots such as Septoria leaf spot or common bacterial blight to be sampled monthly (2-4 times/season). Group 3 includes legume viruses such as soybean mosaic, bean pod mottle, bean common mosaic, and beet curly top virus to be sampled for twice during the season. Members of the fourth group are insect pests including soybean aphid and the bean/pea aphids that will be sampled twice during the season. The field sampling protocol for each group was demonstrated. Observers will note crop growth stage, incidence and severity of symptoms, and transport the samples to the nearest diagnostic lab. Howard indicated that observers will provide timely updates to the website and recommendations for management of legume pests where possible.

Virus Laboratory Diagnosis Protocols

Sue Tolin presented the tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA) system that has been developed as a high-throughput, membranebased, virus kit-based assay for the Legume IPM-PIPE by herself and Chet Sutula (Agdia, Inc.). She demonstrated the procedure step by step, pointing out a number of helpful procedures and potential pitfalls. She provided examples of the results and explained how she interpreted them. A lively discussion ensued with workshop participants sharing their own experiences and asking questions. Sue concluded by addressing a set of the frequently asked questions.

Restricted Access Website Data Display Options

Julie Golod reminded participants that restricted site users include extension specialists, observers, researchers, USDA and state agriculture department personnel, and qualified industry agents. Their needs include viewing data in map displays and tables for report, analyzing patterns across space and through time, and having an easy way to confirm success of data entry. A video was presented that worked through the features of the proposed addition to the website. The site will subdivide the legume pest into the 4 established groups, it will display a presence/absence map for each pest group, provide the ability to quickly query the database, and eventually to customize the maps by selecting specific pests or hosts. Much discussion of these options followed and ended with the group giving Julie the go ahead to incorporate these additional display option to the restricted access website as soon as feasible. (side note: After the workshop, in conversation with NPDN and PIPE leads, it became evident that a clear data sharing policy would need to be in place between NPDN and PIPE before this new feature can be enabled)

Public Access Website Data Display Options

Scott Isard queried the group regarding what they wanted displayed on the public access website. A lively discussion ensued regarding the sensitivity of releasing observations on some of the pests. How it might impact trade, industry, and the ability of growers to market their crops. It was agreed that this aspect could be a major bottleneck in Legume PIPE development and that the PIPE Steering Committee would need to guide the implementation of the public interface. This discussion would need to continue at upcoming workshops.


Scott Isard concluded quickly since the workshop had run overtime. He thanked all for their contributions and suggested that there would likely be more legume PIPE workshops this year. It was decided to explore the possibility of holding a workshop at the upcoming BIC/NPIA meetings in Madison, WI. It was noted that NCERA-200 (Management Strategies to Control Major Virus Diseases in the North Central Region) and W1150 (Exotic Germplasm Conversion and Breeding Common Bean for Resistance to Abiotic and Biotic Stresses and to Enhance Nutritional Value) might be meeting concomitantly. Isard indicated that the additional options unveiled during the workshop for the restricted access website would be online shortly for specialists to use and review.