The Spread of Soybean Rust in South America
The information on confirmed areas of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow) infestation for 2001- 2003 was graciously provided by Dr. José Tadashi Yorinori, Embrapa Soja, Londrina, Brazil.
The EMBRAPA (http://www.embrapa.br/), the SENASA (http://www.senasa.gov.ar/) and the SINAVIMO (http://www.sinavimo.com.ar/fito/asp_public/new_index.htm) websites were the primary source of information used in construction of the 2004-2005 maps. Dr. Monte R. Miles, USDA-ARS, Urbana, Illinois helped delimit the region where we currently suspect that soybean rust is present. The rust has likely spread throughout most soybean-growing regions of Brazil. Its presence in the northern state of Roraima has been suggested but not confirmed. Dry weather has limited rust infestations in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul. Eighteen of twenty sampling sites throughout Brazil have tested positive for P. pachyrhizi, however, the 2004 boundary should be considered a rough approximation due to lack of confirmed observations of soybean rust presence/absence and the rapid spread of the pathogen.
Information on 2004 soybean rust infestations in Argentina has
been extracted from the Sisterna Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de
Plagas (SINAVIMO) website
In summer 2004, soybean rust was confirmed along the Rio Cauca in central Columbia (personal communications G.L. Hartman and R. Frederick). Edson Begliomini (BASF) also provided information on the location of soybean rust in Columbia.
In May 2004, soybean rust was confirmed on an experimental plot in Uruguay (La Estanzuela, Departamento de Colonia). The information has been derived from the Servicios Agrícolas - Organización Nacional de Protección Fitosanitaria - Uruguay website http://www.chasque.net/dgsa/VigilanciaFS/royasoja.htm#COMUNICADOS-
Additional mapping information on soybean rust infestations in
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay has been derived from the Centinela Programa
Regional de Informacion website
The information on soybean growing regions in Brazil was abstracted from a map of Brazilian soybean production regions published by Leibold, K., P. Baumel, B. Wisner, and M. McVey in the September 2001 AgDM newsletter article titled Brazil's soybean production (http://www.exnet.iastate.edu/agdm/articles/leibold/LeibSept01.htm). Information on the distribution of soybean production areas for other South American countries was gathered from websites hosted by the United States Department of Agriculture, Office of the Chief Economist, World Agricultural Outlook Board (http://www.usda.gov/oce/index.htm). It should be noted that the information on these maps is approximate. Soybean production areas in South America have been expanding rapidly in the past few years. Drs. Monte R. Miles and Glen L. Hartman (USDA-ARS and University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois) helped delimit the region of scattered soybean production.
The map was compiled and animated by Annalisa Ariatti